Herko C-F Group 3

A Map Of Immigration To The United States From 1880-1930

Immigration/Emigration from 1880-1930

Overview of Immigration/Emigration

Between 1880 and 1930, 27 million immigrants immigrated into America with 20 million immigrating through Ellis Island in New York. America provided sanctuary for those escaping troubles in their home countries.

Most immigrants entered through New York Harbor by steamship, but these people, only being first and second-class tickets, underwent lenient inspection, as they were considered and expected by the state to be of less burden. In the 1880s, 9% of Norway immigrated into America through its eastern port, Ellis Island. Other Europeans such as the Spanish, British, Germans, and Poles sailed into port cities such as Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco, Savannah, Miami, and New Orleans.

In the west, some Asian families relied on the men of the family to discover better jobs and opportunities for their family and to bring them to America. Some also saved wages and returned to their families. In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which restrained Asian immigration into America. This act was in response to the impressions the Chinese gave the observant Americans. The Chinese continued to retain their culture within America and seemed to refuse to conform to the American lifestyle. This included continuing to speak their native language and keeping their braids. Also, the Chinese proved to be different from the courteous and well-conformed Japanese even more so by investing in opium dens, prostitution rings, and gambling. They were forced to turn to these things usually due to the severe racialism against them by the whites of their areas and this unfortunately only added to the things that were used against them by whites.

Throughout the late 1800s, Japanese immigrants immigrated into America, introducing their culture and traditions to America. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan improved America's relations with Japan as it allowed Japanese to immigrate to America to join family or to seek work outside of labor or to farm. But it also showed that the American Government was against Asian labor in America. Between 1890 and 1910, Japanese immigration skyrocketed from 2,000 to 72,000, specifically in Utah This agreement allowed higher class Japanese to come to America, and the result of this was a very different opinion of the Japanese than the Chinese. The Chinese immigrants were mostly lower class families looking for a job or seeking gold during the gold rush. This angered the laboring whites in these areas because they felt the Chinese were taking their jobs. Over time unfortunately, the Japanese were accused having similar cultural traditions as the Chinese and because they looked similar, many white Americans would lump them together; so as a result, the Americans started to treat them as they had the Chinese. In 1924, Congress issued the Immigration Act of 1924 and in it was an act called the Asian exclusion act which stated that asians can not own land or be granted citizenship. They also put the quota of asian immigrants allowed into the country at an extremely low number. Forcing the Chinese and Japanese to immigrate illegally to America. This also upset the Japanese government because it completely broke the "Gentlemen's Agreement".
By Kevin Tsao

Causes of Immigration/Emigration

From 1880 to 1930 about 27 million immigrated to America, and many migrated from part of America to other parts. Many groups of people came to escape problems at home, others came to start new lives or to seek acceptance of a life style. Also because of the invention of steam power, the trip to America was much quicker, and this made the trip seem much more worth while for the many groups.

One of the largest groups that immigrated were the Germans. The reasons for German immigration were economic depression due to the result of WWI, religious prosecution, industrialization, overpopulation and overcrowding of cities and political tensions. At the end of WWI, the German economy was destroyed. Inflation sky-rocketed for the German money. Money became worthless, so everyone was flung into poverty, even some of the richest and most powerful families, were forced to become beggars on the streets of German cities. Adding to the problem was the reparation payments being forced by the Allies to pay for their loses during the war. Germany was unable to pay so they had to create more money, causing inflation to reach astronomical levels. During and after the war, taxation was increased to supply the government with money to pay for weapons, and later on the reparation payments. People fled the poor country looking for some place to call home where they could support themselves. Many were forced to flee fearing that they may be captured and killed for being a protestant. Lutherism was common in Germany due to the fact that Martin Luther, the founder of the religion, was German. Other religious groups such as Calvinist, Amish and other such groups fled to America in search of a home free of religious prosecution.

Industrialization, overcrowding and overpopulation are interconnected. Advances in medicine reduced the chance to die young due to disease, this in turn led to a population boom. When the Industrial Revolution began to start in Germany, people from the countryside flooded the cities in search of jobs. Many had to be turned away because of the lack of jobs available. People were forced to either return to the countryside and live the hard life of a peasant, or search for a job in a new city or country, so many turned to America. Political problems linked to the end of WWI were caused by the Allies taking control of the government. People were outraged that they were being run by people who were not even German born. These new rulers were also often very unfair due to bias and hatred they felt toward the Germans. The Germans were blamed for the war and all the pain it had brought to the home nations of the Allies. Germans became fed up and so left the country in search of new homes. All of the above are things that "pushed" the Germans to leave. What "pulled" the Germans to America was hearing from relatives who had already moved to America. They would write about how great the country was and how the relatives still in Germany should join them in America. Along with relatives, solicitors or employers would boast how great the country was or offer jobs to people that moved to America.

The Italians had similar reasons to leave. They mostly left due to overcrowding and political problems. Italy was divided into states with each state owned by either the same or different foreign leaders. This caused many political uprisings to occur against the foreign governments. Because of the Feudal system it was impossible for poor peasants to become anything higher in society. A general population boom in Europe caused the cities to become crowded, so many people chose ti leave. Another group experiencing a similar thing were the Swedes. Sweden's geography made it hard to use most of the land. The entire northern part is barren and cold so the only inhabitable land was the south and overpopulation caused a land shortage. These groups were "pushed" by poverty, overpopulation or land shortage, and they were "pulled" because they were told that America was a new country without poverty with land for all.

The next two groups to immigrate were the Poles and Jews. Many of these Jews were also Polish so left for the same reason the non-Jewish people left. Jews all over Europe went to America seeking a new home to escape religious prosecution that had been a common problem throughout the ages. They were "pulled" to America at the prospect of religious freedom and were "pushed" by prosecution, general poverty and overpopulation problem that existed in much of Europe. The Poles on the other hand left for the same reasons of overpopulation and poverty, but they also had a Cholera epidemic in their country. Cholera is a disease of the intestines that causes severe diarrhea, vomiting and leg cramps and without treatment, it can cause death in a few hours because of the loss of too much bodily fluids leading to dehydration and shock. People seeking to escape the disease, fled the country searching for a new place to live. Once they arrived in America, however, if they did not pass a mandatory medical exam they were forced to leave the country and return to Poland. They were "pushed" by disease and were "pulled" because America was a place that claimed to be free of disease where they could also escape poverty.

The last two groups did not immigrate to this country during this time, they emigrated or migrated or other parts of the country. Some times forced or on their on decision, the American Indians and the African Americas, moved throughout the country. After the Civil War, 90% of the African-America population was in the South, but during the Great Migration, 10% of them would move to the North or to other parts of the country. This opened up new opportunities for the African Americans as well as relieved some of the tensions that existed in the South among whites and blacks. What "pushed" them to leave was what also "pulled" them and that was the prospect of new jobs and a better life for their families as well as themselves. The American Indians on the other had did not want to leave their homes, they were forced to by violence or laws being passed by the Government. During this time period, the Indians experience even more violence and force against them to make them leave. Two of their major chiefs, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull are killed and there is a massacre at Wounded Knee, in which hundred of unarmed women, children and men are murdered. The government also passed the The General Allotment Act of 1887, which takes the land that should be granted to the Indians and sells their land, and gives the money to the indians. This forced the Indians into reservations, where they can't hunt, which until this time was their main source of food. The Indians are forced to move even more and more west and are denied the land and rights they should be granted.

- By: Max Coles and Connor Johnson

Experiences Of Immigration/Emigration

During the time period of 1880-1930, several groups immigrated to the United States and this trip along with what occurred after they arrived, was very different than what most immigrants probably expected. They faced troubles in America that they had hoped they would leave behind, and many were able to overcome their troubles and help fuel a country that became one of the biggest superpowers the world has ever seen. What they experienced In America is nothing short of remarkable.

In the early 1880's many Japanese groups arrived to the US with intentions of finding a bright future. They usually depended on Steam Powered machines to travel because it was a lot faster. Most of them arrived on the West Coast finding farming and mining jobs. Unfortunately, as they tried to put their children into public schools, the people of San Francisco feared that they would flood the schools with "ignorant foreigners." In 1905 both houses of Legislature passed resolutions calling for the Exclusion Act. This led to the formation of the Gentlemen's Agreement, which implied that no new passports were to be given to any more Asians. It now became very difficult for them to adjust because in the early 1920's, many powerful organizations pushed Legislature for Anti-Japanese laws especially in labor. In 1920 many angry white farmers in California drove Japanese farmers out of their farm lands as if the reduced wages weren't enough.

The Italians often immigrated as a way of coping with poverty and dislocation. As the Italians arrived to the US, they preferred to go to South America rather than North America. They came seeking a better life and a way to make enough money to send back home to their families. When they arrived to the US they had jobs that involved shoe-shining, rag picking, sewer cleaning, and whatever hard dirty dangerous work that no one else wanted to do. Their living conditions were terrible because it was usually overcrowded and filthy. They were known as lazy, incapable people and constantly discriminated against. To stretch their money, they skimped on food and practiced frugal ways. As the years passed on, they became noted for their diligence and sobriety as workmen. In the late 19th and 20th centuries, Italians often became fishermen, shoe makers, waiters, and tradesmen. This led to a rise in their economic status.
By: Tiara Hewitt

Effects Of Immigration/Emigration

Having a culture that so heavily influenced by immigrants made America a very different country. Most countries had set customs, beliefs and languages, but the "Melting Pot" effect made America a country of opportunity and equality. It helped to shape the very ideals of the country, making it what it is today. These immigrants had to have sufficient papers to get into the country though. They had to undergo medical checks and If they failed the medical checks they would have to go back to wherever they had come from. During World War 1 a lot of people from Europe came to America seeking greener pastures. Germans and Italians were the largest groups to come to America. America was obliged to not let them enter since they were a neutral country. They could not provide a haven for these people. Most of these immigrants were not that eager to maintain a connection with their home country. Many of their relatives had been killed. There was nothing "nice" left in Europe for them. Some groups like the Jews did however continue practicing their religion. Italians brought with them their traditional dishes, music and religion and the Germans brought with them their food, culture and customs as well. When they passed the checks, they were often discriminated against. Getting jobs was hard since many of the natives felt that the immigrants were taking their jobs and land. In 1890 more than half of the New York's population were immigrants. Though many assimilated to their new homes, many kept true to their roots. They proudly flaunted their tradition everywhere they went and they celebrated their cultures and where they were from. There were however other immigrants who were tired of social restrictions that were placed upon them because of their accents. They hired vocal coaches to help them sound more American. Immigrant's accents were a major reason why they struggled to move up socially. This was a way how the immigrants assimilated to American culture but inevitably in a way lost their identity.

These groups migrated through the ocean. Most entered through Ellis Island in New York. Almost all came by steamboat, which was much faster then the sail powered boats of the old world. Some would later come to America by flying, which was one of the newest inventions. In Fact the first Transatlantic flight to America was in 1928, and it was from Dublin to New York CIty. Conditions on boats were unpleasant and unsanitary. Most of these immigrants were considered third-class citizens so were sent to the third-class section. The third-class section was at the bottom of the ship were rats were regulars. Conditions were cramped down there and many people contracted diseases while down there. The journey across the Atlantic was usually around two weeks long. The seas were rough and many suffered from seasickness and having a doctor onboard was very rare. Death though was not very common due to the fact that the trip was so much shorter, and food supplies did not need to be as plentiful as before the steamboat. The journey across the Atlantic was quite large, it was about 3415 miles, but also depended on where you left from. Upon arrival their journey was not over yet. They had to have their travel documents checked and health checked so they would not bring some new disease to the country. Laws that applied to this group of people included that they needed to have the proper travel documents and visas. They could not just arrive in New York and enter the country without the proper paperwork. There were also laws during World War 1 that were put in place by European governments to prohibit people from leaving Europe. This meant that many people had to sneak away in the middle of the night and run away. Many of the immigrants had obtained illegal travel documents in Europe.
by: Brian Chirairo

A German Family

Works Cited