By the 19th century, immigration to the U.S. had become a very popular notion. Well over 200,000 people emigrated to North America from Liverpool alone in this time period, due to an agricultural depression. Around 1855, almost 2 million Irish had fled to the United States, driven away from Ireland by the Potato Famine. Germany and France also contributed a tremendous amount of immigrants, mostly refugees who had fled their country after a failed revolution. In stark contrast to these freedom-seekers, many natives of Africa were brought here against their will, as slaves. This happened until about halfway through the century, ending with the passing of the 13th amendment in 1865. Near the end of the 1800’s, many Russian Jews also began emigrating, fearing religious persecution. Italians also began to move to the States around that time, because of overcrowding in Italy.

Though these people all came from different corners of the world, for a multitude of reasons, they all share in common that they flocked to these United States of America.
-Written by Dan

What caused each group of people to migrate during this period?
During this time period immigration was a huge part of history. People migrated out of their country because of political instability, famine, and other causes. The Irish migrated during this period because of the potato famine, which was a blight that not only killed the potatoes that were growing but also made the stored potatoes go bad and caused a huge famine where millions of people died not just because of the hunger but diseases such as typhus and cholera. In Germany the government was unstable so that forced a few wary immigrants to go to America. Many of the immigrants to America were forced there because of the slave trade; Africans were taken from their homes and sold into slavery. Native Americans also migrated during this period of time. They were forced out by white settlers who wanted the land as there own and didn't want to share with the Natives.
People had reasons which "pushed" them away from unfavorable conditions in their country, and others had reasons which "pulled" them to better aspects of the United States.
What “pushed” them from their location?
Many of the immigrants were pushed from their homes for a variety of causes. Many were drawn by the promise of a better life, or forced out by slave traders or disease. The biggest push factor in the world was in Ireland was the potato famine, many peoples fear of death was the push factor and made them emigrate. In Germany the unstable government made people uneasy and made people feel as though they wanted to move from their country. Africans were literally push from their homes by slave traders who kidnapped them from their country and brought them to the Americas as slaves. Native Americans also had to migrate without a choice or it would be seen as something against the law and they would be imprisoned or killed for the "offense".
-Written by Leo
Immigration to america

What pulled immigrants to the United States?
Many European immigrants decided to come to the U.S. Particularly during 1820-1880, many Irish many poor and working class, flooded to the United States. As potatoes were a major part of the Irish diet, especially peasants, they were greatly depended on to feed millions of people. Poor, working class farmers also were employed as potato farmers. In 1845, a severe blight of potatoes occurred, ruining over three-fourths of the potato crop. Lower Irish class endured severe conditions were people went without eating for days, followed by small rations inevitably brought about severe starvation that developed in to sicknesses, especially typhus. After five years of gradually successful crops, British government took a census which documented over one million deaths in the last five years. The British blamed the Irish people for the deaths. Exponentially increasing amounts of Irish people sought opportunity, and political asylum. In the eyes of the Irish, the United States offered that. A previous, but smaller immigration in 1816 where Irish workers were assigned into building the Erie Canal were notions of hope to the Irish. As many Irish sailed to the U.S., flooding coastal cities, the Irish population grew up until 1860. Nearly 87,000 Irish immigrants were working in America. Another group of Europeans also saw the U.S. as a land of opportunity. Many Jewish people seeking freedom, and refuge from discrimination, saw the United States as the “golden land.” Successful Jewish businessmen like Joseph Seligman, and Paul Warburg were idols of hope. Oppressed Jews from all over Europe, especially Russia, viewed America as place where their religious identity would be irrelevant to one’s journey to success. Russian Jews living in the southern area of Russia were barbarically killed after the assassination of Alexander II. Soon after this pogrom, over ninety percent of Russian Jews sought refuge in the U.S. Many successful businessmen did not welcome this flood of Jews in 1881.
-Written by Chris USAEireland2.jpg

What caused each group of people to migrate during this period?
In contrast to those who moved to escape bad conditions, there were also those who moved to pursue good conditions. In the 1820's there was a mass migration of people moving to the U.S in pursuit of a better life. These immigrants came from mostly European countries like Sweden, England, Holland, Ireland, Germany, France and Spain. There were various reasons for their migration but mainly the Europeans crossed the Atlantic to escape famine, disease or simply just to find work. In England during this time there was a dispute between Protestant believers and Catholic Church, this dispute caused many English to flee from their country and move to U.S where they could practice their religion freely. French migrated to escape the French revolution, which at the time was caused much controversy in their nation because there was no money to support the citizens (which was a domino effect of overindulged spending by the nobles). All of the above groups of people migrated to the U.S to achieve one thing or another but mainly to live a free life in a new land.
-Written by Ciara

Experiences and effects
The colonial immigrants were only able to migrate on ships. The majority of immigrants sailed from England, Holland, Sweden, France and Spain. The journey over the Atlantic was usually rough and for a very long time. However, the journey was seen as worth is because it promised adventure, an escape from worsening conditions, wars, pests, and famine. Also, depending on where the persons were from, there was a colony of people that came from their same homeland. The English created New England, the Dutch had New Netherlands, the Swedes had New Sweden, the Spanish established colonies in Florida and New Mexico, and the French founded New Orleans and parts of Canada. The way of life in the colonies required hard work, a strong education and a desire for success. Also the majority of colonists were protestant and followed a strict faith. By 1830 the total population rose above 3 million and this overwhelmed the British so they created laws trying to regulate immigration. The government passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. These acts raised the amount of residency time in America to 14 years in order to qualify for citizenship, and gave permission to the president to kick out whomever he felt was a threat.
-Written by Alex


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