Colonial Wiki Histories

Watson A/E Class

Watson AE Group 1

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)

Most migrants came from northern European countries to work in the colonies. Many came from Ireland, Germany because of crop failures and forced many residents to leave their homelands. So they lookd at the US as a new opportunity to grow and live a better life. Most immigrants settled in New York, which was home to over one million residents. More than half of the citys population at that time were immigrants and their American-born children. So people migtated to the US so they can help the economy and a new life.

The first succesful colony was jamestown virginia in 1607.It was known as the succesful business. Also tobacco was found in the southern rivers and in chesapeake bay.In 1620 English pilgrims established a settlement near Plymouth Massachusetts.New England colonies were the maine to the New York border.Many states were the core of the middle colonies.Maryland and New Jersey was considered one of the states. The 4th main colonial was called the western "frontier" in the west part of pennsylvania in the early 1700's.

Watson A-E Group 2:

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)

During this period in United States history, people from all over were flocking to the New World. Some of the first to make the trip were people from all over Europe. They brought with them the first Africans in this new world. This new land, discovered by Christopher Columbus, showed new promise for these people. There was a lot of land up for grabs and countries rushed to get it. Although once the people got here they met the Native Americans whom were eventually kicked off their land by these new settlers. Colonial immigration was what led to the birth of our country and with out these people we may have been clueless to world for many more years (Immigration, Immigration in the Colonial Period: 1600-1775).
Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period

Immigration to the Americas in the Colonial Period resulted in 2 to 2.5 million residents in the colonies by 1775 (Immigration, Immigration in the Colonial Period: 1600-1775). Those from Western Europe officially came first, the English being the one to colonize most of the Americas. Following the English were groups such as the Dutch, settling in what is now New York, the Swedes, Danes, and Finns, settling in Delaware Valley, the German Quakers residing mainly in Pennsylvania, and the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians settling all through the back country. Others who immigrated were forced to, either being criminals or working as indentured servants to escape the economic crisis in England at the time (Immigration in the Colonial Period: 1600-1775, Colonial Migration to the Americas, Immigration).
Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period

There were many reasons why people immigrated to colonial America. These people immigrated to America because of hope that they could have a better life. Some of them fled pestilence, war, ridicule, harsh conditions, and famine. Few people also just came to the New World because they wanted a thrill. The Africans were brought here forcibly from their homeland, but they weren't brought here as slaves always. During the beginning of life here in colonial America the Africans were brought here as indentured servants. They were first brought here in around 1619 to Jamestown, but around 50 years later they were brought over as slaves. They were exploited in their homes and were basically stolen from their homeland. The number of Africans brought to the colonies steadily increased over the years(Immigration...Introduction). European slave traders "pulled" the slaves from their home. After Columbus discovered the New World, all of these European nations came to try and attain new land. The New Englanders came to receive new land and hopefully to prosper in the New World. Tobacco was a cash crop that was exported from the colonies and it made a lot of money for the white plantation owners. Criminals were sent here to work, so it was basically a new start for many English people. The Puritans influenced the culture of American colonies greatly. The Puritans were Protestants whose values helped form colonial and U.S. values. Most people adapted to the ideals and characteristics of the Puritans and wished to be like them. Some Irish people came here as indentured servants and some just came for a new life. Most of them were Catholics and were poor in their old land. Their home was a very rural place, but when they came to the colonies theyentered a very industrial place. They had to adapt to their new life and it was pretty hard. Also, new laws in their homeland caused them to leave. They came here to also try to prosper. There were a lot of immigrants who came to this new land. Most of the immigration was caused by the Europeans who all thought it was a new opportunity(Immigration).
Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period

People From Ireland and western European; English Migrated to America. People from Western Europe were sent to America to work as indentured servants and the irish people where "push out ireland by religious conflicts, and lack of political autonomy and dire economy(Immigration).

Works Cited
"Immigration...Introduction." Library of Congress. Library of Congress. 04 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Immigration." Microsoft Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. <>.

"Colonial Migration to the Americas." Thinkquest. 03 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Immigration in the Colonial Period: 1600-1775." DISCovering US History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. San Francisco Public Library. 3 Nov. 2008 <>

Watson A-E Group 3

Colonial Immigration to the United States.

Overview of Immigration during the Colonial Period
-Eduardo Lepe

Most of the people that came to the American colonies during colonial times were seeking for better life styles for themselves. Immigrants from around the world came to colonies that were already set up and ready for people to pursue in. The main different immigrant groups were the English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Africans. The first immigrant group was from Western Europe. From 1629-1640, around 21,000 English colonists settled in New England (Immigration). Many immigrants moved to Georgia for cheap lands and to buy lands to plant crops (Colonial Immigration). The Dutch established their stay in New Netherlands and found New Amsterdam. The Spanish’s permanent settlement was in Saint Augustine, Florida. These Spanish settlers were from Mexico and soon found New Mexico of the U.S. Africans was shipped from Africa during the slave trade of about 600,000 to 650,000 African slaves to North America (Immigration).

Causes of Immigration during the Colonial Period
-Jennifer Yu and Sierra Mitchell

Why did these groups of immigrants immigrate to the American colonies? The answer to this question fluctuates among the varieties of immigrant groups. The African groups are here because most of them were captured by African slave owners and was then sold to European masters, which the Europeans eventually shipped them to the American colonies to serve as slaves or to work in plantation fields (Immigration). Other Africans were attracted and interested for plantation labor (Colonial Immigration). European individuals immigrated to the colonies to seek for adventure and to take advantage of the various opportunities the Americas have (Immigration). Other Europeans fled from war in their homelands and became refugees in the American colonies (Colonial Immigration). The European nations' environment were not clean that pushed some Europeans out to the Americas to seek for better environment conditions. Also, food was scarce, another factor that led Europeans out of their homeland. The English immigrants came to the American colonies because the Navigation Acts were enforced. The Navigation Acts regulated the British Empire’s economy and restricted foreign shipping trade between England and its colonies. Many resented the laws which activated their departure to the North American colonies (Immigration). It was overpopulated in England and a lot of people were unemployed; they came to the colonies to seek new jobs and lands to buy. Buying land was another factor that attracted immigrants from other countries to come to the North American colonies. Some immigrants hoped that buying land can raise their status and position in the new society. The Puritans, a religious group from England were discontent in the Church of England, believed the Puritans believed that God planned their lives, but the church defined God as monastic. The Puritans escaped execution from the Church and the King, fled to the Americas. Other immigrants such as indentured servants received free passages across the Atlantic in exchange of four to seven years of work labor, for permanent stays in the colonies (Immigration in the Colonial Period, 1600-1775).

Germans immigrated to North America in the early 17th century. Many Germans left Germany to come to America because of their religious beliefs. Germans were often persecuted and looked down on because of their religious status, so their role in society was negative in the views of their peers. They wanted to practice religions other than the state religion of Europe, so they felt that they could practice their religions freely(Immigration: German). The Irish immigrated to North America to escape the failing economy of their homeland. Their main crops were potatoes, but a fungus that broke out caused their crops to die. With hopes of finding work in America, they migrated, but since their economy had failed in Ireland, a lot of the Irish only had money for the journey, but not enough to build up new businesses or own their own houses(Immigration: Irish).

When Christopher Columbus came to North America in 1492, it inspired many other groups to come. One of these groups was the Italians. In Italy, major conflicts were rising between the people who lived there. There was a lot of poverty and violence in the streets, and the gap between the rich and the poor continued to grow. Disease spread causing a lot of death. Italians felt America was the place to go in order to gain better health and more opportunities to build themselves back up(Immigration: Italian). The Japanese immigrated to America in search for a safe, better life, and more job opportunities. Also, they came to escape the violence and destruction occurring in Japan in hopes of finding peace in America. Because of the Meiji Reconstruction, the Japanese saw a huge decline in their economy and conflicts arose because of this, hence why they came to America(Immigration: Japanese). The Chinese came to America searching for wealth. But instead of trying to escape a harsh life, they came because of the Gold Rush. They found gold, but later had problems fitting in with their surroundings/ becoming American(Immigration: Chinese).

Migration Experiences and Effects during the Colonial Period
-Marcus He and Jesus Gallardo

Immigrants in the colonial times had to travel in boats and ships because the lack of advanced technology back in the years of the 1500s and the 1600s. The Spanish had "oceanic ship navigation skills" which allowed them to see what direction they were headed towards. The Western Europeans arrived first in America, in present day Virgina. As the Western Europeans start to emigrate from their home country, the rest of Europe also began. Groups like criminals, usually migrated, liked the colonies, because they can serve as indentured servants over at the new country. During the 1600s, the Swedes, Dutch, French, And the Spanish began to immigrate too.

When people started first on their sea trip, they did not know how to survive. They did not know how to survive in the wilderness. People did not know how to protect themselves in the new world, so many died during the winter.But the Native Americans helped them greatly. Challenges faced the Immigrants. The government started cutting down the number of immigrants allowed to come into the country. They had trouble looking for jobs and usually ended up in poverty because of language barriers and first experiences in the new world. Many new immigrants had trouble looking for adept occupations. Most immigrants were living in poverty during there first experience in the new world (United States) because of the economic crises and the being in the super social society. It took awhile for people to adapt to their new environment. People usually brought food and religion to the New world that they used and practiced in their homeland.

Works Cited

Marsh, Ben. "Colonial Immigration." New Georgia Encyclopedia. 2006. Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. 03 Nov. 2008 <>.

Dugan, Jeannine. "Colonial Immigration: An Overview." Suite101. 25 Jan. 2000. 03 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Immigration." Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Microsoft Corporation. 31 Oct. 2008 <>.

"Immigration in the Colonial Period, 1600-1775." DISCovering U.S. History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. San Francisco Public Library. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Immigration." 06 Apr. 2002. Library of Congress. 6 Nov. 2008 <>.

Watson A-E Group 4

Max, Tiffany, Arianna, Abi

Directions: Write your summary/history of U.S. Migration to 1790 and submit it to your group editor. Group editors should compile the group's histories and put them together HERE on YOUR group's wiki page. Please title your histories, include headings for each section, and write the authors' names below each heading. For example:

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)
-edited by Max

Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period
The bills that passed in 1941-1943 and the great depression meant that immigrants came less to the US. One of the patterns on immigration was that they saw two new kind of immigrants. They were the War brides and refugees. The refugees " were people who had survives Nazi persecution in Europe during World War II"(Immigration paper). About 500,000 people came after the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 and 1950 and the Refugee Relief Act were passed Starting in 1952 they allowed a minimum of 100 people a year from any country in the world.The people who migration to the U.S. were he English,the slaves, French Spanish, Dutch, and Swedes. the slaves were brought over here by force and not on there own free will. The west Africa was a "home of many ancient cultures and more than 800 languages"(Immigration... African beginnings). The Dutch come from the New Netherland and they settle in the New Amsterdem now know as New York. The Spanish from Mexico and settle down in New Mexico. the French from acadia and settle in the New Orleans.
-written by Abi

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
People had migrated to the United States during the colonial period because they either came for a new start in life, they are running away from their past, and some were indentured servants who were criminals before. Most of the first immigrants came from Western Europe. Some criminals were sent to the U.S to work as indentured servants. Some were being "pushed" from their homeland to escape harsh conditions; but some Africans wanted to leave because they knew if they stayed they were going to be captured and sold into slavery. What attracted them here was either for adventure or for there own personal reasons.
-written by Arianna

Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period
Immigrants coming from Europe took ships to get to the U.S. Many left seeking better opportunities and success in the new land. Port cities all along the east coast exploded with immigrants. New York became a center for immigrants arriving at Ellis Island. Boats bringing over slaves for forced labor were often very crowded. The slaves were forced to endure poor conditions along the journey. Being so crowded people often got sick and many died of disease and illness. (Immigration, The Historians Perspective)
When the Africans, Europeans, Scots-Irish, Germans, Roman Catholics and Jews immigrated to the U.S. it was very hard for them because they had to leave many things behind and start a new life in the U.S. Unless they had family that already immigrated to the U.S., these immigrants had no resources or support to fall back on when they arrived. There was not already a "network" or community of people like them. Challenges that they faced when they came to the U.S. were that it became difficult for them to become citizens because of the Alien Act and the Naturalization Act and the U.S. was becoming more and more crowded and people were starting to dislike the immigrants. It was not very difficult for most immigrants to adjust to life here because many came to escape harsh conditions or war and the U.S. didn't have either of those which made life a bit easier for them. Immigrants got jobs as laborers and settlers because that was what was needed by the Americans most. The legal status of immigrants depended on when they immigrated to the U.S. If they came before the 1790s then they were legal in the U.S. but if not, they had to wait 2, 5, or 14 years depending on the year that they came because Congress passed acts in order to control immigration which made it harder for many to become legal citizens. These groups were able to retain an identity with their former country by practicing their cultural or religious beliefs. Many groups were Catholic and were able to bring their belief and maintain it. These groups have assimilated to American culture very well although they had to go through many hardships.
-written by Max and Tiffany


Watson A-E Group 5

Tim Blair

Ulster Scot immigrants, more commonly known as the Scots-Irish, played an instrumental role in developing the American nation during the Revolutionary War. After colonizing Northern Ireland from the highland glens, the Ulster Scots clung fiercely to their military culture. This was necessary as the land James IV had granted them did not sit well with the Irish. As a result, they formed a tight-knit community very proficient with arms and not hesitant to use them. Just as highland veterans from Culloden joined the Royalists out of a sense of fealty, the Ulster Scots sided with the Patriots, largely from their hatred of both the English and the Episcopalians. While in the Continental Army, they lent military experience and a vigorous spirit to an army that desperately needed it. They were also politically active in the Continental Congress. While the Ulster Scots made up five to six percent of the colonial population, they comprised nearly half of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. As respected military officers and influential politicians, this small demographic shaped the beginning of this nation. (How the Scots Invented the Modern World...)
Herman, Arthur. How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Europe's Nation Created our World and Everything in it. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

Joyce Joves

During the Colonial immigration to the U.S., many immigrants left their homes to relocate somewhere far to make a better life and seek better opportunities than what they had before. The majority of immigrants resettled to North America. The immigrants tried to find a certain location far from their original homes to live a better life to provide for their families. The economic differences and lifestyle is what "pulled" them to their new homes. African immigrants were forced to work as laborers, while other immigrants decided to move to another country because of "unlimited resources". The job opportunities and farmlands is what mostly attracted immigrants to come to the U.S. Immigrants who came to the U.S. worked in menial, labor-intensive, low-paying, and dangerous jobs. Immigrants had a hard time assimilating to American culture and were expected to learn the beliefs and standards of the American society. Some immigrants tried to keep their own cultural heritage, language and religious rituals. For example, the French Protestants assimilated to the American culture quite easily, while others such as the German and Irish immigrants still kept their traditional cultures.

"Immigration," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008 Copyright 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Library Congress, "Immigration." Library Congress. 05 May 2005. 5 Nov 2008 <>.

Stephanie Mar

From the 1600s to 1790, thousands of immigrants, mostly from Europe, migrated to start their lives over again. In the beginning the population was almost completely English. Most moved to areas now known as Virgina, Maryland, and the Carolinas and made a career out of farming off the land. Because there was so much land, immigrants could often own property, but could rarely seek labor. Due to this, indentured servitude became popular; the owner would pay the immigrant's voyage in exchange of labor until the cost was worked off. Some indentured servants include the Germans, the Dutch, the Scots-Irish (or the Ulstermen), and the Scottish. These people moved from their old country to the U.S. because of drought, famine, to escape persecution, or even as prisoners of England; no matter the reason, they all wanted a better life ("Colonial Immigration: An Overview). Unfortunately, this was not the case for the thousands of enslaved Africans. Tons were brought to the U.S. as labors, and some even helped with advancing agriculture in America. In any case, the migration of these hundreds of thousands of people brought diversity to the U.S. and made the country the melting pot it is ("Immigration...").

Works Cited
Dungan, Jeannine. Colonial Innigration: An Overview. 4 Nov. 2008 <>.

Immigration... Library of Congress. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.

Wallace Brumfie

The pattern of immigration during the early 1700s was a lot of African immigrants are heading towards the United States because of the slave trade. They were brought to the southern part of the United States. European people who migrated to the united states before took Africans against their will. Before the Africans came the population of the English people in the thirteen colonies were 1,500,000. The war by English and French settlers made English people migrate more to the United States.

Watson B/G Class

Watson B-G Group 1

Colonial Migration "Practice" Wiki--due Weds. 11/5/08 (YOU SHOULD DELETE THESE INSTRUCTIONS WHEN YOU COMPLETE YOUR WIKI)

Directions: Write your summary/history of U.S. Migration to 1790 and submit it to your group editor. Group editors should compile the group's histories and put them together HERE on YOUR group's wiki page. Please title your histories, include headings for each section, and write the authors' names below each heading. For example:

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)

Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
-Written By: Tara Keir
Many of the Immigrants who migrated to America came to escape the same problems and in hope to purse a better life. The Scot-Irish where pushed out of Ireland because of a terrible economy,and religious conflicts, they came to America in hope to flee these conditions by getting religious freedom, and owning land. The Scot-Irish settled in Philadelphia, but then migrated to South Carolina in 1790 and stayed. The Irish had the second largest population in colonial America, between 1820-1930 4.2 million people had migrated to American, leaving 4.7 left in the homeland, Ireland. The Germans were another group to migrate to America, they where pushed to come because again of religious restrictions. They settled in New Orleans and the valleys of New York, and Ohio because this was where land was cheapest. The Scandinavians also came to escape religious wars and disasters with many crops resulting food being scarce, because the situations where so terrible in the homeland, large numbers of people migrated to America("Immigration").
-Written By: Erica Morino
Many Europeans immigrated to the U.S. because they wanted adventured, to escape any terrible conditions, war, disease or lack of food. One reason that the English immigrated to America was because they made a crime and they were sent to America as indentured servants. These servants had to work to get their freedom back. Pilgrims left England for religious reasons. Most of them went to Massachusetts. The Dutch and Swedes also immigrated to America possibly because of war or religious reason. The French founded New Orleans and the Spanish founded both Saint Augustine, Florida and New Mexico. The British brought African, Spanish, Scots-Irish, and German slaves to America (Immigration).

Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period

Well as life got started it was basically difficult trying to build up an economy. They moved to a very different place with different weather and soil for growth and crops. The trip coming to the new land was hard because some had to travel on foot and many traveled across seas and oceans. Sweden settled in Deleware and about 40 years latter the British came in took over. England’s colony grew in size very quickly with many people growing tobacco and adapting to weather causes and hazards. Western European countries moved closer towards the Atlantic oceans. Many people died of natural causes and many people died from disease ("immigration").

Works sited:
"Immigration." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Encarta. 3 Nov 2008 <>.
"Immigration." Library of Congress 4/6/02 4 Nov 2008 <>.
“Immigration,” Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2008 © 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Visa. "USA Immigration History." 2003 4 Nov 2008 <>.

"Immigration To The United States." 31 October, 2008 4 Nov 2008 <>.

Watson B-G Group 2

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)
-edited by Jonathan Wong

Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period
-written by Maureen Durnin and Phillip Araj
The first group of people to ever settle in America was the English in 1607. They settled in Jamestown, Virginia. Up until the end of the 17th century, the majority of the American colonies were all English. There were also a few minor groups such as the Dutch that settled in New York in 1614, and the Swedish that settled in Delaware in 1638.("Immigration") When people were escaping authority, or they just didn't have enough money to make their way across the ocean to America, a landowner in to colonies would pay their way in return for their labor. Unfortunately, since indentured servants only had to work for a certain amount of years, the demand for labor grew in America, so they turned in a different direction. In 1619, they started importing slaves from Africa to the colonies. Between the centuries of 1600-1800, about 2,300,000 Africans unwillingly immigrated to America. 60% of slaves lived in Virginia and Maryland. The other 30% lived in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. There were a lot of reasons for the Europeans to immigrate; economy, war, problems within the government, even famine. But all the same, this idea spread quickly. In 1683, the first group of German immigrants settled near Philadelphia. They kept on spreading through the colonies and by 1775, about one-third of Pennsylvania's population was German. By the Revolution, Germans had settled all along the Eastern seaboard. Another big group that immigrated to the colonies in America was the Scots-Irish. They first migrated to New England, but since they weren't accepted there, they went through Pennsylvania and settled in Pittsburgh. Many people would think that Scots-Irish is a mix of Scottish and Irish, but the truth is that Scots-Irish are actually a certain group of people for Northern Ireland.("Dugan") The Scottish immigrated to the colonies around the middle of the 18th century. Another miner group of Europeans that immigrated to the colonies was the French. Although they settled more in Canada, they also immigrated to New Orleans in 1718.

From 1600-1700 most of the immigration to the Americas came from Europe the biggest group was English they were the first settlers.Then Irish Scots were also a very big population that immigrated. They settled all along the eastern coast.they mainly came for new jobs.The northern Italians came and settled in New York and some Sicilians lived in New York also.They came for new jobs. ("Library")

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Taylor Giuntini and Jonathan Wong
One of the major causes of immigration and relocation was Industrialization. The burning down of farms and the construction of factories was known as the industrial Revolution. The new jobs and poverty for farmers caused many people to come to place that had the technology such as Europe and America. "The Industrial Revolution began in England and gradually spread across Europe."

Many people were forced to migrate here as indentured slaves as punishment or without consent such as African Americans. The reason why these people were forced to come here was to help work on the tobacco fields back then tobacco was a very good business but required a lot of work. Some of the Africans became slaves or rather they were all slaves later on. Early on people traveled to the colonies for adventure, run away from war, famine, or poverty. The Irish left Ireland due to the British' s Navigation Act which caused most of them to immigrate to the colonies. The Swedish, Dutch, Spanish, and French were all already here in America from the early exploration of the americas during the 16th and 17th century. They eventually moved to the colonies because there were no restrictions on them immigrating to the colonies. ("Immigration")

Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Hannah Herbert
Most people that migrated came from Europe. Most groups moved because of problems that were occuring in the home counties("Immigration"). Some people were forced to come, like slaves from Africa. They were kidnapped and brought by Europeans. A lot of Germans came from Jamestown in the 1600's followed by Irish in the 1800's. When people first arrived, even before the 1600's, there were already native Americans living here in the US. They pushed the Native American out to create a country for themselves. They Economy required there to be slaves because it was so bad. Then, in the 1700's, people starting coming from France ("Colonial Immigration to the US").

Works Cited
"Immigration" Dinnerstein, and Reimers, Lonard and David. "Immigration." microsoft encarta online encylopedia. 1997-2008. 5 Nov 2008 <>.

"Dugan" Dugan, Jeannine. "COLONIAL IMMIGRATION: AN OVERVIEW." January 25, 2000 3. 5 Nov 2008 <>.

"Library" "Immigration from 1600-1700." Journey to America. 3 May 1997. 3 Nov. 2008 <

"Colonial Imigration to the US." 2007. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.

Watson BG Group 3

Causes of Immigration (1600-1790)
by: Awet and Jason
Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790) Awet Zeray The reason people from all over Europe immigrated to the United States.(Immigration) Some people were adventurous and also some saw a lot of money in the U.S.The English first colonized Virgina and New England.(Immigration) Some people were brought over like English indentured servants and African slaves.(Immigration) These people were captured and forced to be a slave (Immigration). Before Britain prohibited its subjects from participating in the slave trade, between 600,000 and 650,000 Africans. "Immigration to New England in 1620 when English religious dissenters known as the pilgrims".(Immigration) In early 17th century settlers from other western European countries also established themselves on the Atlantic coast.(Immigration) "The Dutch established the colony of New Netherland in the region of present New York"(Immigration). The Florida in 1565 Spanish settlers from Mexico established Acadia in 1604 and Quebec in 1608 in present Canada. That every 25 years the population doubled in the U.S.The great depression had just ended people were trying to find work; this pushed certain people to the east and west coast. This is the time World War 2 begins and people are being recruited for work and soldiers.. "Colonial Immigration 1600-1790." Colonial Immigration 1600-1790 (2008): 1-5 "

Why people migrated over to the United States?
By: Zuelema and Adam
The first African Americans were brought into Virginia to work for tabacco was in 1619. Some would come to work for about four to seven years, but in most of the times they would come because they convicted crimes but their were some that came voluntarily. The agriculture was profiatable for the settlers. By the 17th and 18th centuries African slaves livd all of England North American Colonies. Immigrants started immigrating to New England in 1620. By the years, 1620 and 1640 more then 21,000 colonist crossed the atlantic ocean to New England. When the English immigrated to the united states they mainly settled in New England and Virginia around Chesapeake Bay. They settled there because the land was very fertile so they could grow goods like tobaco.

Watson B-G Group 4

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)
-edited by Laura Wong

Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period
-written by Fia
Colonial Immigration started when the population of people in America started to increase. For instance from 1771 to 1772 seventeen thousand three hundred and fifty immigrants came to America, these immigrants came from the north of Ireland. Also in addition in 1773 three thousand five hundred emigrants migrated from Ireland, Scotland, Holland and Germany and Philadelphia. The reason why so many Immigrants migrated into the United States is because many people in the 1770’S were looking for liberty, opportunity and freedom. The people who live in countries such as Ireland, Scotland, Holland and Germany have been oppresses and they were ready to protest and fight for their rights. Furthermore The British Isles, northern Europe, the Mediterranean, Africa, the Caribbean came to the United States with their cultural practices and religious beliefs. Every time a new colony migrated into the US, they also came with new opportunities, new economy and new challenges. (Colonial Immigration)

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Brianna Kinahan and Laura Wong
Most of the people that migrated to the US during the colonial period came for a better life because the U.S. promised more than what they had in their home countries. The people that migrated came from countries such as Europe to as far away as Africa. However, most of the Africans and Europeans came for different reasons then each other. Some Europeans came because of a crime they committed in England and had to serve 4-7 years in the US. They were known as “indentured servants’. However the other Europeans that came, came because of cultural and economic problems (at the time their economy was very poor). They thought that the US would promise land, work and a start to a better life. The Europeans that came were educated and skilled workers. They were able to adapt well into a new nation. The many European people that came for a new life also took much of the land and named it after there own country. (Ex: New York) The Europeans played a huge role in forming the colonies in the “New World”. ("The English")

Most of the Africans however, did not come to the US by choice. They came here as human slaves and were only used for backbreaking work. They were sold, loaded on ships as steerage and generally treated very badly. ("The English")

In the beginning of the 17th century, the first immigrants came from Europe to Colonial America. They built settlements in both Virginia and New England and formed an economy dependent on tobacco. Due to the fact that tobacco required a lot of labor, indentured servants were then sent from England to help grow the tobacco. An indentured servant is a person who must work for period of time in order to gain their freedom. Later on, when more laborers were needed, slaves were captured and brought over from Africa. Nearly every 25 years, the colonial population would double. Some of the major reasons for people's immigration was to have an adventure, escape difficulties in their homeland, slavery, or other specific personal reasons. Puritans for example immigrated for an improved religious life. These are some of the many reasons that people immigrated to Colonial America. (Encarta: Immigration)

Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Nathan Yee and Alex Rios
The colonial immigration between 1600-1790 had different effects on people and gave them various experiences as they went through it. Some people were forced to move the U.S. whereas others chose to move on their own free will. An effect that immigration had on people was that it created a whole new lifestyle for most of them. For example, the Africans didn't have a choice when they migrated to America by the slave trade. Another example would be the Irish who were pushed out of their country because of religious conflicts in their homeland. These are just some of the various reasons why colonial immigration happened. ("Immigration")

The English, The Dutch, Swedes, French, and Spanish all migrated here on boats. The English settled in Jamestown, Virginia and used the same laws that England uses. By 1680's the English thought the Africans were a main part of there economy by exporting tobacco to England. The Dutch and Swedes established the New Netherlands colony in New York in 1624. Also New Sweden made there colony in Delaware. Eventually they lost there North American colonies to the British in 1664. The spanish and French both used the slaves for there economy. (Microsoft-Immigration)

Works Cited
"Immigration." 2008. MSN Encarta. 3 Nov 2008 <msnencarta/immigration>.

"Immigration." 6 Apr. 2002. The Library of Congress. 5 Nov. 2008 <>.

Chao, Adam. "The English." Immagration, the journey to America. <>.

Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Immigration." Immigration. Microsoft Corporation. 5 Nov. 2008.

"Colonial Immigration." Public Bookshelf. Nov. 1. Nov. 7 <>.

Watson B-G Group 5

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)

Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period
written by: Angel Mena

The first people to settle was in New England and in Virgina where the English. Agriculture was profitable for the settles. A lot of indentured servants came to work for four to seven years because of petty crimes or for a free ride over here.The first people to settle in New York where the Dutch and Swedes. The first people to settle in Florida where the French and Spanish. (Immigration)

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
written by: Azehria Dabis Loy and Amanda Eisenberg

Immigrants during the colonial times were moving for better lives and more opportunities. Many moved for economic reasons, jobs, religion purposes, or personal affairs. Many immigrants were African Americans who were mainly brought here by slavery. The Europeans brought them here. Since slaves were brought here in such horrible conditions, had diseases. And the diseases spread through out the slaves, to the owners, to the rest of their world. So everyone was getting sick, and with poor medical care, a lot were dying; other African Americans that were not brought here by slavery, moved for personal reasons and economical reasons. A lot moved for plantation jobs. Some immigrants moved for jobs. Not having enough jobs at their own homes, or not having the pay they needed to live. With these new jobs, they moved up in the world. Improving their status. Having better lives. Other people moved for religious purposes. Their religion was making them move for different reasons. But most immigrants moved for personal reasons, like having better lives and more and better opportunities. New chances in life, more chances to change the things they don't want in their life. People who wanted to change their live for the better to have new chances and have new experiences; all immigrants came for more chances and more opportunities to make themselves better or higher in the world; all the immigrants had different reasons for moving. They all need something and migrated to find what they were looking for. They all had different experiences, different journeys. Different reasons pushed them to move like needing jobs or finding more opportunities. (Immigration)

There were several reasons why living in America became such an aspiring goal for millions of people. Foreigners thought America as a place with endless opportunities. They wanted the freedom to choose their own path in life and to accomplish their life-long dreams which would not have been possible back in their own country. America held much promise to foreigners as America was a new country which accepted and held a wider diversity of people. Many Europeans were condemned to the failure of their country and moved to escape famine or other economical reasons. America was the place to live successful and to have a fresh start in life. (Immigration)

Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period
written by: Welsey Santamaria and Steven Peterson

The first settlers in the United States were the English. The English were transported from England by the London Company. In early colonial times, the English who came were mostly pilgrims in the early 1600s. They wanted to separate from the church of England. The English immigrants were considered separatists. Later on more English came. Conditions were very harsh for the immigrants, disease and famine were widespread during early colonial times.Immigrants settled mainly around the Chesapeak Bay due to the fertile environment that it provided. This means that agriculture was one of the main profits for the settlers. Tobacco and cotton were perhaps two of the most important cash crops for these people. Native Americans were a big help to the early settlers when it came to food production and agriculture methods. (New England Colonies)

The first English settlement was in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Immigrants settled mainly around the Chesapeake Bay due to the fertile environment that it provided. Agriculture was one of the main profits for the settlers. Tobacco and cotton were perhaps two of the most important profitable crops for the English. Large lands needed a lot of work, so the English had indentured servants. Theses were servants who would give a few years of their service to come to America and have better opportunities or they did a petty crime and being punished for it. They were sent to the America to do some of the work on the large lands. Also, Pilgrims settled near Massachusetts Bay. Their values were influential to other settlers, however these people didn't believe in slavery.

Work Site

"Immigration," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. 31 Oct. 2008 <>

"New England Colonies." New England Colonies. 31 Oct. 2008 <>.

Herko A/E Class

Herko A-E Group 1:

Colonial Migration "Practice" Wiki--due Weds. 11/5/08

There were new ways of travel. They traveled by boats with new traveling techniques and skills. When they got on to the new land they were able to settle in the new land that were already set in or tried to make a new land. They needed to adjust to the new land and some had to work. Also, They had religious freedom. The jobs that they had to do were farming or working in a factory. They affected the land by just living their. They changes the way food was and it was different for every town because they have many ethnic groups that moved to the U.S. Everyone had a voice in the town meeting. Most people who came to the new world chose to got to the new world but others was forced. Many colonies did not restrict immigration.

The English made tobacco, but it required a lot of work to make it. They had indented servants to help them grow it. They brought over Africans to work in the plants. They had religious freedom. They had people who believed in protestant faith and hard work these people are know as Puritans. They would spread this practice and it would soon become and American characteristics.

The Germans, Scot-Irish, dutch, and swedes were different form the English. They made different shaped furniture and building. The dutch made an octagon shaped church. The Scot-Irish made furniture that would be the same form their home. Women were treated differently in the past of the Americas. they had more power, they were able to work and able to work with the men. The English didn't let women work in the fields. The had many jobs like farming, building, or working in the port. Many poor citizens could find a job.

-written by Richard Tam
experiences, effects
Many groups of people stared to come to the U.S. because of all the change that was going on in the U.S. The U.S had the bill of rights, which gave them many rights. They also had many opportunitys to get jobs, they had religious freedom. There were many people who came to the U.S like Africans, Europeans, French, Spanish, and they Indians who were already there but they were forced to move out of their land. Africans stoped immigranted after the slave ban of 1808.
Many on the people came on boats but the Indians were already there. Since many people started to come they started to pass laws that would limit them and have certain people come. The laws that were passed were Naturalization act of 1790 which meant that any immigrant that some to the U.S. is a citzen but it only applied to whites. When thede pole got her they all had religous freedom and they all had an education. Some even when to college. Some people were homed schooled and then went to college or went europe. They had many job like farming, fishing, working in a factory, and some women gopt to work. Although, with the war between indians-french against the English, not amny english people started to come to the U.S due to the war.
Indians: When all the people stared to migrate over to the U.S. The people in the colonies started to take over more and more of indian territory with out their say on it. Theyn got their land taken. In the north there was a war going in 1785 to 1795. It was a fight over terrioy for war and the U.S won in 1794.

French: As they came they started to have a war with the British called fremch indian war. This war was a fight over territory. The more land someone had the more money they had. They need land for trading and farming.

During the colonial immigration times there was a distinct pattern, the pattern was follow the leader since one group of people came to the Americas and heard they were doing good, other people wanted to go to the Americas to good also. There were many groups that came to the Americas during the colonial period. Most of the people that immigrated to the Americans during the colonial period were the English, the Germans, the Scotch-Irish, the French, the Dutch, and the Africans. When the English came to the America in 1607 they established Jamestown in Virginia which was one of the first English colonies in the Americas. The Dutch came in the 1614 and they settled in the region what is now called New York. The Germans and the Scotch-Irish came during the 1770’s and joined some of the British colonies. The French came to the Americas during 1673. They were very big in the south and claimed most of the south. Since all these colonies were all coming to the Americas the 13 colonies were made and the 13 colonies had three parts to them which were the New England colonies, middle colonies, and southern colonies. Each colony have their own reasons of coming to America but the main two were because they wanted to practice there own religions and to keep there families together.
- written by Sydni Scott

Works Cited
"Colonial history of the United States." Wikipedia. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.
Marsh, Ben. "Colonial Immigration." The New Georgia Encyclopedia. 2008. 4 Nov. 2008 <>.
"Naturalization act of 1790." Wikipedia. 26 May 2008. 4 Nov. 2008 <>.
Stein, Leonard D. "Immigration." Immigration. 01993-2008. Microsoft Corporation. 28 Oct. 2008 <>.
White, David. "The 13 American Colonies." Social Study for Kids. 2008. ArtToday. 4 Nov. 2008 <>.

Herko AE Group 2

The Migration of 1790

Team Members


During the Migration of 1790, there were many patterns within in the U.S One main pattern was an overwhelming majority of white people, and Americans began to limit their numbers of the peopl e migrating to the U.S. The major groups of people that where coming into the U.S during this time period of the Migration were the Scotts/Irish which had a number of 25,000 people, the Germans which had about 200,000 people, and Roman Catholics that came in with a number of 25,000 people. The very first group to come to the U.S where people from New England, but many soon moved to the cities in around 1850. All these groups of people came in at the time period of 1775-1783.

They came here to improve in their life economically. They knew that they would have a better life and they would also have better resources to survive. People migrated from all over the place from England, Scotland, Germany, France, and also The Netherlands. They all moved here for different reasons, some people move because of revolutions and other for economic problems in their society. Everyone had a different place of origin but they all wanted to move to a better life and what isn’t better than a country that is just staring and is going to grow bigger and more powerful each day. What pulled them to their new home was that they started out there, they were born there they grew up there etc. what attracted them to come here was that they could start all over and have a better life than they had in their country.


Herko A-E Group 3

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)
-edited by Michael Choi

Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period
-written by Mathis Boureille

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Danielle Gofman

Colonial immigration began around the 1600s. Around the year 1620, the first immigrants to arrive to the future United States were from England. The English settlers also known as the Puritans or Quakers. They came to Jamestown, Virginia, on a boat called the Mayflower in 1620. They came to America to escape the King of England took control of the country, making it unfair for the people to live. These were the earliest immigrants that came to America. The English started their own economy, school, government, and social and working class community to bring the settlers together with a common goal of trying to begin their lives all over again in a new world.

During the 1700s, a new group of immigrants started to arrive in the United States: the Swedish. The Swedish immigrants settled near the Delaware River. They also settled in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland during the 18th and 19th centuries. The territory of New Sweden was near the Delaware River. Later northern Sweden was taken over by the Dutch who also took control of the Swedes in America

The Dutch immigrants arrived in America in the 17'th century and settled in many different parts of the New World. The Dutch mostly settled in New York and Delaware. The Dutch immigrants had to cross the Ocean to arrive in America in the years 1614-1655. Their community consisted of many different types of people of different races, backgrounds and religions. The population of the Dutch rose to about 1600 people.

Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Michael Choi

The English

The English crossed the Atlantic Ocean to gain religious freedom and created laws based off of Protestant beliefs. Approximately 21 thousand English immigrated to New England(US). They started colonies based on farming and a rural lifestyle. Harvested cash crops (e.g. tobacco) but farms required intensive manuel labor. Slaves were brought in to make life easier. The colonists worked well as a group because their religious beliefs brought them together. Most Englishmen had a good life, but the African slaves had a hard life. The Puritans kept their beliefs and culture because it was the one thing everybody had in common. Their beliefs (education, mannors, hard work, etc.) became the standard "American" beliefs.

The Dutch and Swedes

Like the English, the Dutch and the Swedes crossed the Atlantic, but in the early 17th Century (mainly 1614-1655). Their colonies consisted of a mix of many different ethnicities (i.e. Walloons, Huguenots). Everybody worked well together because all of the different groups were there for a common reason: an easy life. Their beliefs became mixed because of the diversity. The main colonies were where the current day Ney York and Delaware are. But, the unity did not last. The Dutch communities absorbed the Swedish ones (1655) and the British took over the Dutch in 1664, making the overall population to 1600.

The French and Spanish

Both the French and Spanish arrived in the US and Canada before the English, the Dutch, and the Swedes (the 16th Century). The Spanish settled in the South of the US in 1565-1598 (like Florida). One of the hardest parts of moving and migrating to America is the obstacle of adjusting. Beatriz E. personally gave account on how moving to many places was the most difficult part of immigration.The French settled in Canada and the Middle-West in 1604, 1608, and 1718 (like Quebec and the Louisiana Territory). Life was mostly rural and based on farming for the Spanish. The French mostly had industry because they were in the North.


The British owned most of the colonies and allowed many people to join their colonies. the English colonies consisted of 200 thousand people in 1688 (which doubled every 25 years). Between 1700-1770, the African population was 260 thousand, the white convicts at 50 thousand, and the volutary immigrants at 210 thousand. the Scotish population in the 17th Century was 80 thousand, a little more than the German population at the time which was 70 thousand. All of these different ethnicities caused great diverity that we still see in America today, but also causing great conflicts between the many groups.

Works Cited

"Swedish Colonization of the Americas." Wikipedia. 5 Nov. 2008 "Colonial History of the United States." Wikipedia. 5 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Colonial Immigraton." The New Georgia Encyclopedia. 24 Mar. 2006. 4 Nov. 2008 <>.

E., Beatriz. "Stephanie P interviews Beatriz E, Spain." Interview. Immigration... Interviews. 10 Dec. 2005. Library of Congress. 5 Nov. 2008 <, south>.

"Immigration to the United States." EH.Net Encyclopedia. 5 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Immigration to the United States." Wikipedia. 04 Nov. 2008 <>.


Herko AE Group 4

A History of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period (1600-1790)
-edited by Nancy Ta
Overview of U.S. Immigration during the Colonial Period
-written by Nic Williams

Emigration is a movement of people permanently leaving a nation. In the 17th through the 19th centuries millions of Europeans migrated to North and South America. The groups that migrated consisted of : Dutch, Swedes, French, Spanish, and the English. Combining all the groups approximately 542,500 men and women migrated to a new homeland. Many people decided to migrate do to wars and the effects. The others migrated because they wanted a better change at life and also seeking for the American dream.

Causes of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Mr. Watson and Mr. Stanton
Experiences and Effects of Migration during the Colonial Period
-written by Nancy Ta

During the colonial time, many immigrants had to travel in boats and ships because of the technology they had back in the 1500s and 1600s. A way the Spanish traveled to the new world was they developed a “oceanic ship navigation skills” which allowed them to traveled with direction instead of just going to a unknown place. The first group of people that arrived in the colonies was the Western Europeans. In addition, those Western Europeans arrived in our present day of Virginia. After Western Europeans decided to emigrate from there home country, other Europeans decided to follow along and emigrated towards the colonies. Groups like criminals, usually migrated to the colonies, because they can served as indentured servants over at the new country. Groups that came over during the 1600s were the Dutch, the Swedish, the French, and the Spanish.
When the immigrants first disembark from the sea, they had trouble surviving on their own. The immigrants didn’t know how to survived in the wildlife because they had no previous familiarity about the wildlife. They didn’t know how to fen for themselves in the winter so many died of starvation because of lack of knowledge they have in the new area. However, with the help of Native Americans, they survived through the hard times of being in a place they don’t have any familiarity with. Nevertheless, during the 1900s many immigrants had previously known someone before they entered the country. Their were definitely challenges that was going on, the government determined to cut down on the amount of immigrants can come into the country, fitting into the society and the economy status. Many new immigrants had trouble looking for adept occupations. Most immigrants were living in poverty during there first experience in the new world (United States) because of the economic crises and the being in a super social society. For example, Germans worked in agriculture and skilled occupation. Jewish and Italian occupied in manufacture factories and in small retail business. Also, abundance of family were living in a one room apartment with no heat or no working water. They had a hard time fitting in and the economy made them have even more of a dreadful life. It took the immigrants couple of generation to live a decent and respectful life.
It took Americans a while to adjusted to new people because of all the laws they put on immigration. It was easier for West Europeans to adapted to the American culture than the South Europeans. Many people brought there religion over to the colonies because people’s reasons to leaved there native country was because of the limited religion they had over there. However, when the very first immigrants arrived to the colonies, their culture were slowly disappearing causing by the vast amount of other religions coming into the colonies. Eventually with so many cultures and religions colliding with one another in one country they each started assimilating each other in some ways. The cultures soon starts to adapt into the American culture.

Work Cited
"The Colonial Period." Oracle Think Quest. 15 Aug. 2008 <>.
"Colonial Immigration." Suite 101. 28 Oct. 2008 <>.
"Colonial history of the United States." Wikipedia. 4 Aug. 2008 <>.
Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Immigration." Immigration. 1993-1998. Mircosoft Corporation. <>.

Herko AE Group 5

Colonial Mrigration To the Americas Before 1790

Each group that migrated to the americas before the 1790's had come here for a specific reason. Some of the patterns of immigration to the U.S. during this time period was due to work and settlements. Some of the other reasons that led people to migrate during this period would of been, for a better econonmy, family, oppurtunity, polictics and religion or races. Each of the groups that moved here to the us left their traditional backround behind because they had problems or they just wanted to create a new life for themselves. A great example of this would be the quakers of England, they left their home lands to obtain a religous freedom that was only found in the new land, the Americas. People were also pushed and forced out of their homelands. Africans were taken from their homelands by means of force. With their arival to the new lands, they were forced to work. Their home land was probally their only known form of life, and they didnt want to leave, but they were forced to. People are also pushed out of their homelands because of personal problems, like drought or famine. People leave their homelands to form a new life, which they think will benifit them and hopefully benifit later generations. Most immigrants that came before 1790, had to wait to years to become legal Americans. The Naturalization law would of made them wait longer but it was never passed. Some Africans kept their culture by paintings, language, and music. The Europeans culture was the way they lived in their homeland. they farmed and opened their own little buisnesses, as locksmiths and shoe makers, etc. The Quakers brought their culture to America and passed to the other people.
Most people dont pick up and go somewhere, most of the time they are attracted to what a land has to offer for them. For example, the Puritains, a religous group from england was attracted to the Americas because they saw it as a place to practice their religion freely. This oppurtunity of religous freedom attracted them here, and because of that, they got what they wanted. Wether its a recourse or a just more freedom, people migrate for a better life. Most of the people who came to the United States were either from the Netherlands. Most of them were white with them all together all taken up 60%. Latinos, Blacks, and others took up the remaining 40%.
Many forces that pulled people to the Americas would of been:
1. Polictics- many convicts were froced to england to work their crimes off.
2. geography- if there is a famine in a land, they moved to America to start a better life and farmed better.
3. religion- the quakers and puritains bothe fled to America for religous freedom.
4. government and laws- Scotts and Irish were both mistreated by englands laws and went to the Americas to live on their own free land.
5. the econonmy- England, as well as many other European colonies went over many colonists to collect recourses from the land for money and other raw materials.
Work cited'
Brewer, Lawanda. "Colonial America 1607-1783." UNCP. 1960. Prentice Hall. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.

Edmondson, Brad. "How the west was settled-Geographic migration pattern." How the west was settled. 1997. A primedia company. 11 Nov. 2008 <>.

"Immigration." Essay Empire. 4 Nov. 2008 <>.
Pbs. "Population and immigration 1600's-1790." Pbs. 2008. Wikipedia. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.

Reimers, David M., and Leonard Dinnerstein. "Immigration." Immigration. 1993. Microsoft Corperation. 28 Oct. 2008 <>.

Herko C/F Class

Herko C-F Group 1

During the colonial period, mostly Europeans immigrated or migrated within the U.S. many of these Europeans came for adventure or to escape bad living conditions in their homeland such as; wars, pestilence, famine and poverty. These Europeans brought people from Africa to work as slave. People who did not immigrate for adventure came in hope of a better life, especially economically. The major groups who immigrated to the U.S. during this period were; western Europeans like the Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, French, British and the slaves forced to come into this country. In the years 1629-1640 there were about 21,000 English living in New England, where the pilgrims first settled in 1620. in 1664 there were 1,500 people ( Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, French, British, Walloons, Huguenots and African Americans) in New Amsterdam. By 1688 there were 200,000 people in total mostly African slaves, Scots-Irish and Germans. The number of Africans between the years of 1700-1700 was a tremendous 260,000 there were also 50,000 white convicts and 210,000 voluntary immigrants. (1700-1770) The Scots-Irish had 80,000 people and mostly fled their country because of the Navigation Acts which were laws that were made to regulate the British economy. (1700-1770) the Germans had 70,000 people. In 1761 there were about 284,000 blacks in the south and 41,000 in the north, 60% in Virginia and Maryland, 30% in North Carolina and Georgia. In 1775 about one third (100,000) people in Pennsylvania were German. The people who immigrated during the colonial period settled mainly in the lousing territory. The pilgrims were the first to settle in the U.S. in 1620 and settled in New England. The Dutch settled in New Netherlands (New York) in 1614 and New Amsterdam (N.Y.C.) in 1626. The Swedish established New Sweden( Delaware) in 1638. The Spanish established Saint Augustine, Florida and New Mexico was founded by the Mexicans 1598. The French settled in Acadia in 1604 and Quebec in 1608 (Canada), as well as settling in New Orleans. The Germans established Germantown (near Philadelphia) in 1683 and went as far north as Maine. The Scots-Irish came from Ireland in 1713 and went west of settle in Pittsburg. The French Protestans/Hugenots settled in South Carolina and Couth Virginia in the early 18 century. Protestants often called themselves puritans and valued hard work strongly.
- Written by Jessica Hernandez


Not long ago, back in the days of the 18th century, English settlers claimed seniority over the expansive landscape that was America. But it was at this time that their hierarchy would be disrupted, as many newcomers would be joining the blessed lands. On many boats from across the sea, other cultures of different backgrounds slid ashore. Many of these new folk came from Neighboring lands of old England, such as Switzerland, Ireland, Scotland, and the ever-popular Deutschland, but you may call the latter Germany. Many came escaping famine or drought, some escaping war, and some escaping poverty.
The Germans were one of the many groups of foreign immigrants coming to settle in the colonies nearly two hundred years post-Holy Roman Empire while Prussia was conquering everything. Some of the push factors of the causes for the migration were worsening opportunities for farm ownership, religious persecution, and military conscription. On the other hand, the pull factor for the Germans included better economic conditions in the U.S. (especially the opportunity for farmers to own land). The first groups of Germans to settle were those encouraged by William Penn in the 18th Century. They created Germantown in Penn’s own Colony of Pennsylvania. Many other Germans fled from persecution along the Rhine, and thus settled with the Dutch settlers in the Hudson River Valley in New York. By the American Revolution, the German populous had settled all along the eastern seaboard.
One of the largest non-English groups to immigrate to America was the Scottish and Irish settlers mainly composed of Ulstermen from the latter country. Roughly a quarter of a million Ulster Scots migrated to the Americas between 1717 and 1776. As a late arriving group, they found that land in the coastal areas of the English colonies was either already owned or too expensive, so they quickly left for the hill country where land could be acquired cheaply. Here they lived on the frontiers of America. Early frontier life was extremely challenging, but poverty and hardship were familiar to them. The first trickle of Scotch-Irish settlers arrived in New England, mainly attracted by the rippling terrain that embraced their own countries. They brought with them the potato, where, in Maine, it became a staple crop as well as an economic base. Few Scott-Irish settlers started settlements in New England, causing much displeasure amongst fellow New England dwellers. The Scott-Irish then went to Pennsylvania to settle near a range soon to be known as Pittsburgh.
When the first foreign settlers arrived in the Americas, labor was hard-pressed, so many landowners began to import some of their indentured servants from their old home countries. People whose voyage was paid for usually worked off the cost of their voyage for a total of seven years, but were also given fifty acres of land to do with as they pleased. However, the need for indentured servants became obsolete by this new gift of the African Slave Trade. And thus birthed the famed Triangular Trade system, and it lasted for many years.
-Dan Schaefer/Demetrius "Frankie" Beauchamp


Through out migration each group was brought over in different ways. The Africans was the only group brought over against their will, others came to escape harsh conditions, fled wars,a better life and serve out a prison when the prisons got to full. After years passed more and more immigrants came to the Americas, soon after, they stared to pass laws that said immigrants had to wait two years before they can become U.S. citizens. So after other laws were passed like the Naturalization Act that wanted to increase the period of wait for immigrants. Some people felt that to many people were migrating so they passed the Alien Act that expeld any foreigners who seemed as a threat to the U.S. The challenges that they faced were the laws that discriminated against them. Some laws that they tried to pass were the naturalization act which tried to extend the period for immigrants to be considered U.S citizens. The jobs they had were jobs that did not pay very much and they were dangerous and most americans would refuse to do. it was difficult for immigrants to adjust to the americans life and maintain their own cultural heritage. Adjusting to america took a toll on some of the immigrants who worked as servants, because they could not adapt quickly enough some died causing the owners to want more help and making him want more servants to bring to america
-written by La'Kreshea & Ebony


Every person had a reason to immigrate and there was a pattern within his or her reason. Some immigrated to seek a better economy that could supply jobs. Others were known as refugees. These are immigrants that were forced from their home via natural disaster, war, or problems with the government. The first group of settlers came from Western Europe. Approximately 21,000 crossed the Atlantic. They established the first permanent settlement in Virginia. They were able to develop a working economy by planting tobacco, however this required a lot of labor. So that’s when Africans were first brought over as slaves. The settlers brought over more than 650,000 black slaves.
The Dutch immigrate early 17th century. They established their first colony in 1614, which is now present-day New York. Sweden established New Sweden in 1638, which is now Delaware. The Dutch took over New Sweden in 1655 only to be taken over by British colonies. Throughout the span of this time, these colonies were drawing in settlers from many nations. It was considered a cosmopolitan.

Herko CF Group 2

Colonial Period

The Colonial Period saw what could be loosely described as a mass exodus of people from almost anywhere imaginable, to the United States. People of British, German, Austro-Hungarian, African, Scots-Irish, Jewish, Vietnamese, Korean, French, Italian, Spanish, Chinese, Welsh, Scandinavian, Russian and Slavic descent were all flocking to the Americas. There were economic immigrants (people who moved to escape poverty or pursue opportunity), refugees (people who fled their country seeking asylum from war, pursecution, or natural disaster), and involuntary immigrants (slave trade).
Between 1840 and 1920, the immigrant population of the United States had increased well over thirty million.
-Written by Dan

What caused each group of people to migrate during the colonial period?
The immigrants who moved to America usually moved for religious freedom during the colonial period. Other causes included wars, famine, and economic failure.
Other immigrants included black slaves escaping England in search of freedom. Of course when they reached America they were enslaved again, and held in slavery until they died but that's beside the point. During this period the immigrants were predominantly English with a mix of Spanish, Irish, French and Swedish immigrants.
-Written by Leo

What pushed them from a location? What was there place of origin?
The immigrants were push out of their countries by a variety of political, religious, and social reasons. The English settlers were mostly protestant refugees from the Church of England. The Spanish immigrants were mostly in the colony to better there own position in the new world. The Irish immigrants were added to the mix in 1775-1783 when word of the new world reached them, as well as French people who supported King Louie XIV in the French revolution and were seeking refuge in the shores of the Americas. The Swedes and the Germans also had similar reasons for laving their countries as the English, escaping prosecution of religious hunts to weed out the protestants forced them to abandon their homes and come to America.
-Written by Leo

--Migration Experiences and Effects
People from all over the world migrated by ship to Northern American in the mid 1800's. These people came from a variety of different countries including England, Holland, Germany, Ireland, Portugal, China, Norway, Finland and Spain. Millions crossed the Atlantic Ocean in desperation for new opportunities that their former countries didn't offer because of famine, disease, war or simply the lack of jobs. When these brave people set out for the trip to the America's they had mixed emotions of worry, excitement and curiosity to see what the new world will reveal and provide for them. The experiences of their individual travels differed depending on the lengthy boat ride and the amount of people aboard . Most ships in those day's were unsanitary and disease ridden because of the crowded bunks people had to share. Despite these set backs many found a new way of life, the Portuguese stayed on the coast establishing themselves in fishing while the Norwegians and Swedes traveled west in response to the inexpensive farming land. Other groups of immigrants like the Irish, Chinese, and African Slaves attained work in factories or building railroads. The British made up half the total amount of immigrants, taking this into account they were able to create their own colonies and laws such as the Alien and Seditions Acts of 1830 to control the mass amount of immigrants.
written by Ciara

This page is not finished. More will be added as groupmates submit their parts of the page. The instructions are being left up for now, in case anyone needs clarification.

Herko C-F Group 3

Colonial Immigration

Overview of Migration

The patterns of foreign immigration to the United States are, for the most part, people who came voluntarily and people who came involuntarily. Most immigrants immigrated into the United States because of their current economic situation, to obtain better jobs and build better lives for their families, or came under foreign authority, notably the Africans who became slaves. More specifically, the immigrants from Western Europe immigrated due to the spread of diseases carried into the urban areas from country side. This was a major issue during the late 1800s as more and more country folk allocated into urban areas due to its manufacturing and industrial booming. People living in large urban centers such as London, Manchester, and Liverpool were also forced to emigrate from the high rent burdened to them from complacent landlords and poor working conditions under immoral factory owners. Politically, as Queen Victoria passed away and Edward VII ascended onto the throne, discontent among the people also gave them leave. The issue of tariffs, which increased taxes to protect the national industry issued by the government, was also a key reason towards emigration from Europe. Among these reasons, sectional regionalism reserved certain areas the right to vote, caused discontentment. In addition, real wages, wages estimated not in money but in purchasing power, between the United States and foreign countries and population growth also played parts in immigration.

Major groups who immigrated during this time came mostly from Western Europe. Africans were forcibly being allocated to the United States from Africa for slavery purposes and the Spanish from Mexico immigrated into contemporary United States for territorial purposes. European immigration groups included the first settlers from Western Europe, specifically, the Pilgrims and Puritans. Other immigration groups included the Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, and the French from Europe. It is interesting to note that the first Africans were sold to Jamestown, Virginia and were captured by a Dutch naval ship. The sold Africans then became indentured servants under labor system. The next wave of African Americans was forced to migrate to America to work as slaves in 1619.

The oldest Dutch settlement, built around 1613, included a number of small huts built by the crew of the "Tiger" ship commanded by Adriaen Block, a Dutch commander. Their ship had caught on fire by Long Island in which they settled on until they were sighted by another Dutch ship. In 1614 the Dutch of the Netherlands arrived and established colony of New Netherland, present-day New York. The first settlers from Western Europe established the first permanent English settlement in 1607 with an estimated population of 210 people. The first settlement was under the condition of exploration by Christopher Newport. King James I permitted three ships to land at Cape Henry in Jamestown in the Virginia Colony. Pilgrims from England arrived in present-day Massachusetts in Plymouth Colony in 1620. The Pilgrims immigrated into United States territory from East Midlands of England due to fear of cultural identity loss pertaining to political issues. Puritans also from England arrived in Plymouth Colony to settle in New England in Massachusetts Bay in 1629. Puritans were devout Catholics and immigrated to North America mainly to begin religious reform and escape religious persecution. In 1638, the Swedish established colony of New Sweden in present-day Delaware from Sweden. Peter Minuit, a Dutch explorer, led a group of 50 colonists to establish a settlement in American territory. The first Spanish settlement occurred in 1513 in Florida which was mistaken for an island by Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce De Leon. The French established a settlement in 1541 under Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, and landed in Cap-Rouge, Quebec in search of a route to the Pacific Ocean. The number of people who attended these numerous expeditions remains limited. A few came voluntarily, namely the people who sought adventure or for unique personal reasons.

By: Kevin Tsao

Causes of Migration

After America was first discovered, many groups of people began the long journey to the new world. What would cause these people to leave everything they had known, their family, home and possibly their jobs, to go to a foreign land they knew nothing about? For most, they did it without a choice. With the 13 colonies of Britain for instance, anyone charged of a crime, even a petty one, could be shipped across the Atlantic to work as Indentured Servants, who were basically slaves for only a certain time period and then being granted freedom. Some went because of the prospect of new land and untold fortune in this new strange land. Another reason was to escape religious prosecution. One group in particular were called the Pilgrims and they landed in Massachusetts. They set up churches and established the Plymouth Colony. They were Protestant, valued hard work, education, and commercial success. They were "pulled" to America by the prospect of escaping religious prosecution, the chance to start a new prosperous life and to make money. They were "Pushed" because some were forced there by the English because they were criminals and the English didn't want them in their country. Some were pushed out by religious prosecution and were afraid they would be killed or captured if they were discovered.

Other groups such as the Dutch and Swedish came to America during the same time. They were not as successful at setting up colonies as the English. The Dutch founded the colony of New Netherlands in the current state of New York and later established New Amsterdam in what is currently New York City. The Swedes founded the colony New Sweden in Present-Day Delaware. They competed for land and were in the same business of selling crops and fur. The Dutch in response to this, took over New Sweden in 1655 only to lose it and all it's colonies to the English in 1656. They were "Pulled" to America at the chance to gain more land and colonies for their home countries, as well as their governments had offered land to anyone who would settle there. Some were "pushed" because their governments forced them to go settle their so they could populate the area. Also, this applies to most of Europe, but because of advances in small pox vaccinations, more food and sometimes lack of war, there was a population boom, but many countries were unfit to accommodate this new surge in population. So many problems arose from this causing many to want to leave.

The last group to Immigrate during this time were the French and Spanish. The Spanish having discovered America, were the first to colonize it. They also expanded south into South America in search of riches and more colonies for their country. Both groups mostly went to populate new colonies, and to most countries, colonies=power. Also most of Europe was in a sort of religious and political distress caused by the Protestant Reformation. Many countries were trying to fight the Protestants and so many of them fled to America, seeking religious asylum. The Spainish also wanted to spread Christianity through all of the Americas. Also, this was a time when France was beginning it fall toward the French Revolution. Many fled hoping to escape the hardship. What "pulled" the groups was mostly the hope of either spreading their religion, or being able to practice without being excommunicated and prosecuted. What "pushed" many was the hardship and political problems of the French government.

The overall causes of the Colonial Immigration for most groups was the possibility of starting a new life and escaping the chaos that was Europe during the 17th century. Some fled from wars, others from famines, plagues or droughts. Some went for their countries and some were kicked from their countries. Others wanted to spread Catholicism, and others wanted to Spread Protestantism. Whatever the reason, the number of Immigrants during this time gradually increased and eventually jumped from thousands to millions of people.

-Max Coles and Connor Johnson

Experiences and Effects of Migration

The slave's legal status was rather vague. They were not considered residents of citizens of America, let alone human. Some of the people who emigrated to the United States during this period were people who had been to condemned to work off various misdemeanors and criminal offenses such as petty theft and this cemented their status as criminals an illegal's. The slaves tried desperately to retain an identity and maintain a connection with their former country through music and dance. The Spanish would often have all-night bonfires were they would drink wine and dance traditional songs throughout the night remembering their old way of life and the loved ones they left behind. The African slaves would too sing songs that reminded them of their ancestors and they would secretly practice their traditional religion keeping in touch with their old ways. The Swedes maintained their cultural practices by doing the most basic of practices; they kept up their language. They did not abandon their language when they were conquered by the Dutch and in this way kept this connection with the former country.

By: Brian Chirairo

Works Cited

-Simkin, John, ed. "Immigration to the USA." Spartacus. 04 Nov. 2008 <>.
-Beijbom, Ulf. "A Review of Swedish Emigration to America." EUROPEAN EMIGRATION. 1996. 04 Nov. 2008 <
-Stein, Leonard D. "Immigration." Immigration. 01993-2008. Microsoft Corporation. 28 Oct. 2008 <>.
-Simkin, John, ed. "Swedish Immigration." Spartacus. 04 Nov. 2008 <>
-Powell, Timothy L. "A Brief Examination of the Causes of Immigration to the United States Before and After the Two World Wars." Espacoacademico. 2001. 10 Nov. 2008 <>
-Cohn, Raymond L. "Immigration to the United States." EH. 15 Aug. 2001. 10 Nov. 2008 <>

Herko CF Group 4

Colonial Migration Throughout the United States

Overview of Migration During this Time Period:

--Overview by Jonathon Fong

Causes of Migration

Immigrants came mainly for a better life or to escape a corrupt government along with other reasons. Immigrants to America emigrated from other countries. There are at least 15 million refugees worldwide. Refugees are people who have been forced out their country because of conflict in that country generally. Immigrants founded America. Immigrants try to assimilate and act like everyone else so they seem normal. America is a melting pot; it "melts" together different cultures and ways of living. The first English immigrants to America were the pilgrims. Between 1629 and 1640, 21,000 English immigrants came to America seeking fortune or adventure. Slavery originally had no major role in the American Economy. The Navigation acts by Britain regulated their colonies' economies, causing massive numbers of Scottish and Irish people to immigrate to America because they were being restricted back home. Almost all immigrants to colonial America came from Europe. The English made up most of the population of colonial America. After 1710, Scottish, Irish, and German people began moving to America because they felt surprised back home. Indentured servitude was common in colonial America but people weren't transported to be servants like slaves. One forced immigration was that of Africans to be slaves. Between 1600 and 1800, 2,300,000 Africans were transported to America to be used as slaves. By approximately 1775, many Germans had settled in America and about 100,000 Germans lived in Pennsylvania.

Causes of migration are separated into “push” and “pull” factors. People left their country of origin for many reasons like politics, geography, religious, social norms/expectations, and their economy. Some people left because their country lacked social and economic opportunities. The social and economic situation in their country was falling apart. When they left, they were in search of jobs, farmland, and business opportunities so that they could improve their economic situation. The country they were migrated to had the perception of opportunity. It gave them the chance to support themselves and/or their family. Some people had a more forceful leaving because of pestilence, famine and natural disasters in their homeland. Others left to avoid religious persecution like the Pilgrims. They wanted to get away from he discrimination, and the hurt they were receiving from the people in their homeland that disagreed with their religious beliefs. By migrated, they had the chance to make a better life for themselves away from the persecution. Some people who didn’t like or agree with the war, left o get away from it. People who were convicted of crimes in England were sent to American colonies as indentured slaves for 4-7 years. This would be and example of both “push” and “pull” factors. They might have been pushed to migrate to another country because they were sent there and didn’t have another choice and because people might not have wanted to live with people who had committed crimes. They were, in a way, pulled into another country because serving in another country could have been better for them. Captured slaves were pushed into leaving because they were forced to leave and were captured slaves who had no other choice. In the bright side, some people had left and migrated to another country to seek adventure. Some people were curious to know what was on the outside of what they knew and wanted to explore more.

--Overview by Jesse Wycko and Vilma Herrera

Migration Experiences and Effects:

European Settlements:
In 1492 when Columbus sailed the ocean blue, Europe was getting its first taste of the future U.S. soil. All the way up to the 17th Century, Europeans were migrating to the western part of the world in search of new found wealth and prosperity. After setting sail from their European countries on large boats that carried hundreds of settlers, who would look to the new land for a promising future and many new opportuniities. During the tedious journey from Europe to the Americas, they had to travel the length of the Atlantic Ocean. Depending on what country that the Europeans were from, they had different laws, that applied to them, mostly only making sure that they were still loyal to their mother country. Upon arrival, most of the euopeans were not expecting the harsh conditions of America in the winter time, and many suffered. They assumed that everything that they grew in Europe would do well in America, however, the new land didn’t have the same basic ingredients in it and ended up not helping the growth of their agriculture. But then again, there were the Native Americans. The native Americans were not as “civilized” as the colonist, and they were prejudiced greatly, resulting in brutal attacks and many many deaths, even though the native Americans helped the colonist settle in to the new land more comfortably. Overall, the change from Europe to America was a big change and had many horrible outcomes, it was successful in the end.

Most new immigrants were seen as settlers in America. They tried to retain their identity by settling with others from their home country and practicing different acts of their culture. Some of these practices were as small as making the food from their old country or as big as starting businesses that strictly have to d with their culture.

--Overview by Chris Johengen and Kimberly Nguyen

Herko CF Group 5: Immigration

Causes of Migration

There were many reasons of why people of the colonial period moved to the United States. The causes of migration are described as "push" and "pull" factors. A push factor is "a motive for emigration from the country of origin." A pull factor is a reason for immigration to the new country.

The first immigrants to America were from Europe. In the 17th century, England colonized Virginia and New England. In 1607, the English established Jamestown, Virginia, which was the first English settlement. The English economy depended on growing tobacco, which required a lot of labor. Criminals were sent to the colonies to work as indentured servants, "laborers who were forced to work for 4-7 years before regaining their freedom." In 1619, Africans were brought to Virginia to work as slaves against their own will. In 1620, the Pilgrims immigrated to America because of religious reasons. During the mid 1600s, England passed the Navigation Acts, which caused Scots-Irish to immigrate to America.

Some people immigrated for the adventure. Others immigrated for personal reasons, such as relationships, wanting to be with their family. However, the majority of immigrants wanted to escape the harsh conditions in their homeland and wanted to start a new life in the new country. The immigrants were attracted by the availability and cheapness of the land. Some of the immigrants were Africans who were captured in Africa and brought over to be sold into slavery. They accounted for a lot of the population. Other reasons include fleeing from wars, religious persecution, oppression, pestilence, or famine. Some reasons were political, such as escaping from a dictatorship or evasion of criminal justice.

However there were some barriers of immigrating to a new country. When the immigrants left the country, they were leaving their family and friends. There were uncertainties on their arrival at the new country. They needed to find work and somewhere to live.

Written by Elliot Wong

Migration Experiences and Effects


From 1876 to 1976 there was a huge mass of emigration from Italy to the United States. In 1850, 4,000 Italians were in the U.S. This soon changed in 1880 after a wave of Italian immigrants arrived which greatly increased the population to 44,000. By 1910 there were 472,000 Italians in New York, 200,000 in Pennsylvania and many other numbers located in New Orleans, Minnesota and California.

The main reasons for embarking on the journey to the U.S. was to escape the poverty, overpopulation, and natural disasters in Italy. Better life in the U.S. was talked about by many in the old country and many Italians wanted to find new jobs to better their families. "Cheap land could no longer be found in the U.S. which made the mostly agricultural people of Italy, become urban. Early immigrators took jobs such as shoe shining, sewer cleaning, and many other hard, and dangerous jobs that people did not want to take. Many families also had their children work, leaving no time for education." In the late 19th and 20th centuries, they often became fisherman, shoemakers, waiters, fruit sellers, tradesman, and construction workers." As the years went by, the Italians "rose up the economic scale" by doing very well in good paying blue collar jobs.


A major problem for later German immigrants was bonding with earlier German Americans. Most Germans were Lutheran, a third were Catholic, and about 250,000 were said to be Jewish. The later immigrants of Germany became angry with German Americans for Americanizing the old religion. Germans did not consider German Americans true Germans, and did not approve of them replacing their language with English during church services. The new Lutheran arrivals had broke away by developing the Missouri Synod which aloud them to practice their "old-style" ways within the Lutheran church.


The population of Ireland was greatly increased due to the Napoleonic Wars leaving the majority of it's citizens impoverished. Along with the dramatic rise in population, came "religious prejudice of Protestant Masters to the Catholic Church, and political subordination." Many Irishmen had no choice but to emigrate to the United States. Between 1820 and 1860 the Irish made a third of all immigrants entering the U.S. Part of the reason for this many Irish entering America was "The Great Potato Rot" of 1845. Famine had swept through the crops of Ireland making the crops undependable.

Once in the U.S. the immigrants found that it was not the solution to all of their problems. Many peasants arrived unprepared to start farms or businesses. Many Irishmen became laborers for the great canals between 1830 and 1880. "Along these work cites was where the Irish formed their small communities." As American cities began to grow, many Irish immigrants began to work as police and fireman in whatever district they lived in. After 1860 more then 2.6 million Irishmen came to the U.S. to work and form new lives.

Written by Pete D'Amato and Juan-Luis Roldan


Another challenge for immigrants was discrimination. For example, African, Asian and Mexicans were primary victims of prejudice by Irish people. The reaction was to create laws to control immigrants. Chinese contracts often came to the U.S under a American employers. This was stopped by the Chinese Exclusion Act where nativists wanted to stop the Chinese from immigrating to the U.S. So, Laws were created to provide for the physical examination of arriving immigrants. For example, some people were restricted for many reasons. People who were sick, convicts, polygamists, or prostitutes were not allowed to enter the country.

Written by Phi Do

Work Cited

Dinnerstein, Leonard, and David M. Reimers. "Immigration." Microsoft Encarta. 2008. Microsoft Corporation. 27 Oct. 2008 <>.

"Immigration." Wikipedia. 2008. Wikipedia Foundation Inc. 3 Nov. 2008 <>.

nfopedia. Computer software. Funk and Wagnalls, Corp. 1994. CD-ROM

1998 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Computer software. Danbury, CT: Grolier Interactive Inc., 1997. CD-ROM

Encarta 98. Computer software. Microsoft Corp., 1997. CD-ROM